Second Amendment


Published academic scholarship on the Second Amendment

Last updated: June 18, 2006

New to the topic of the Second Amendment?
This Introductory listing is a good starting point.

  Amar, Akhil R., The Bill of Rights as a Constitution, 100 Yale L.J. 1131, 1162-1175 (1991). [HTML]

  Ansell, S. T., Legal and Historical Aspects of the Militia, 26 Yale L.J. 471-480 (1917). [HTML]

  Barnett, Randy E., The Relevance of the Framers' Intent, 19 Harv. J. of L. & Pub. Pol'y 403-410 (1996). [HTML]

  _____, & Kates, Don B., Under Fire: The New Consensus on the Second Amendment, 45 Emory L.J. 1140-1259 (1996). [HTML]

  Batey, Robert, Strict Construction of Firearms Offenses: The Supreme Court and the Gun Control Act of 1968, 49 L. & Contemp. Probs. 163-198 (1986). [HTML]

  Blodgett-Ford, Sayoko, Do Battered Women Have a Right to Bear Arms?, 11 Yale L. & Pol. Rev. 509-560 (1993). [HTML]

  Bursor, Scott, Toward a Functional Framework for Interpreting the Second Amendment, 74 Texas L. Rev. 1125-1151 (1996). [HTML]

  Cantrell, Charles L., The Right to Bear Arms: A Reply, 53 Wis. B. Bull. 21-26 (Oct. 1980). [HTML]

  Caplan, David I., The Right of the Individual to Bear Arms: A Recent Judicial Trend, 4 Det. L. Rev. 789-823 (1982). [HTML]

  _____, Restoring the Balance: The Second Amendment Revisited, 5 Fordham L.J. 31-53 (1976). [HTML]

  Cornell, Saul, & Florence Justin, The Right to Bear Arms in the Era of the Fourteenth Amendment: Gun Rights or Gun Regulation, 50 Santa Clara L. Rev. 1043 (2010).[]

  Cottrol, Robert J. & Diamond, Raymond T., The Fifth Auxiliary Right, 104 Yale L.J. 995-1026 (1995). [HTML]

  _____, "Never Intended to be Applied to the White Population": Firearms Regulation and Racial Disparity--The Redeemed South's Legacy to a National Jurisprudence?, 70 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 1307-1335 (1995). [HTML]

  _____, The Second Amendment: Toward an Afro-Americanist Reconsideration, 80 Georgetown L.J. 309-361 (1991). [HTML]

  Cramer, Clayton E., The Racist Roots of Gun Control, 4 Kansas J. of L. & Pub. Pol. 17-25 (1995). [HTML]

  _____ & Kopel, David B., "Shall Issue": The New Wave of Concealed Handgun Permit Laws, 62 Tenn. L. Rev. 679-757 (1994). [HTML]

  Denning, Brannon P., Professional Discourse, The Second Amendment and the "Talking Head Constitutionalism" Counterrevolution: A Review Essay, 21 So. Ill. U. L.J. 227-253 (1997). [HTML]

  _____, Palladium of Liberty? Causes and Consequences of the Federalization of State Militias in the Twentieth Century, 21 Okla. City U. L. Rev. 191-245 (1996). [HTML]

  _____, Can the Simple Cite be Trusted?: Lower Court Interpretations of United States v. Miller and the Second Amendment, 26 Cumb. L. Rev. 961-1004 (1996). [HTML]

  _____ & Reynolds, Glenn Harlan, It Takes a Militia: A Communitarian Case for Compulsory Arms Bearing, 5 Wm. & Mary Bill Rts. J. 185-214 (1996). [HTML]

  Dennis, Anthony J., Clearing the Smoke From the Right to Bear Arms and the Second Amendment, 29 Akron L. Rev. 1-92 (1995). [HTML]

  Dillon, John F., & Thompson, S.D., eds., The Right to Keep and Bear Arms for Private and Public Defence, 1 Central L. J. 259-261, 273-275, 285-287, 295-296 (1874). [HTML]50k

  Dorf, Robert C., "Use" and the Irresistible Impulse to Legislate, 12 Touro Law Review 123-142 (1995). [HTML]

  Dowlut, Robert, The Right to Keep and Bear Arms: A Right to Self-Defense Against Criminals and Despots, 8 Stanford L. & Pol. Rev. 25-40 (1997). [HTML]

  _____, Bearing Arms in State Bills of Rights, Judicial Interpretation, and Public Housing, 5 St. Thomas L. Rev. 203-214 (1992). [HTML]

  _____, Federal and State Constitutional Guarantees to Arms, 15 U. Dayton L. Rev. 1-89 (1989). [HTML]

  _____, The Right to Arms: Does the Constitution or the Predilection of Judges Reign?, 36 Oklahoma L. Rev. 65-105 (1983). [HTML]

  _____ & Knoop, Janet A., State Constitutions and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 7 Okla. City U. L. Rev. 177-241 (1982). [HTML]

  Ehrman, Keith A. & Henigan, Dennis A., The Second Amendment in the Twentieth Century: Have You Seen Your Militia Lately?, 15 U. Dayton L. Rev. 5 (1989). []

  Emery, Lucilius A., The Constitutional Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 28 Harv. L. Rev. 473-477 (1915). [HTML]

  Featherstone, James J., Gardiner, Richard E., Dowlut, Robert, The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution Guarantees an Individual Right To Keep and Bear Arms, 97th Cong., 2d Sess. 83-109 (Comm. print 1982). [HTML]

  Funk, Markus T., Gun Control and Economic Discrimination: The Melting-Point Case-in-Point, 85 N.W. U. J. of Crim. L. & Crim. 764-806 (1995). [HTML]

  _____, Is the True Meaning of the Second Amendment Really Such a Riddle? Tracing the Historical "Origins of an Anglo-American Right", 39 Howard L.J. 411-436 (1995). [HTML]

  Gardiner, Richard E., To Preserve Liberty--A Look at the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 10 N. Ky. L. Rev. 63-96 (1982). [HTML]

  Gottlieb, Alan M., Gun Ownership: A Constitutional Right, 10 N. Ky. L. Rev. 113-140 (1982). [HTML]

  Green, Michael Steven, The Paradox of Auxiliary Rights: The Privilege Against Self-Incrimination and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 52 Duke L.J. 113-178 (2002). [PDF]

  Halbrook, Stephen P., Heller, the Second Amendment, and Reconstruction: Protecting All Freedmen or Only Militiamen, 50 Santa Clara L. Rev. 1073 (2010). []

  _____, Second Class Citizenship and the Second Amendment in the District of Columbia, 5 GMU Civ. Rts. L.J. 105-178 (1995). [HTML]

  _____, Personal Security, Personal Liberty, and "The Constitutional Right to Bear Arms": Visions of the Framers of the Fourteenth Amendment, 5 Seton Hall Const. L.J. 341-434 (1995). [HTML]

  _____, Congress Interprets the Second Amendment: Declarations by a Co-Equal Branch on the Individual Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 62 Tenn. L. Rev. 597-641 (1995). [HTML]

  _____, The Right of the People or the Power of the State: Bearing Arms, Arming Militias, and the Second Amendment, 26 Val. U. L.Rev. 131-207 (1991). [HTML]

  _____, The Right to Bear Arms in Texas: The Intent of the Framers of the Bill of Rights, 41 Baylor L. Rev. 629-688 (1989). [HTML]

  _____, Encroachments of the Crown on the Liberty of the Subject: Pre-Revolutionary Origins of the Second Amendment, 15 U. Dayton L. Rev. 91-124 (1989). [HTML]

  _____, What the Framers Intended: A Linguistic Analysis of the Right to "Bear Arms", 49 Law & Contemp. Probs. 151-162 (1986). [HTML]

  _____, The Right to Bear Arms in the First State Bills of Rights: Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Vermont, and Massachusetts, 49 Vt. L. Rev. 255-320 (1985). [HTML]

  _____, The Fourteenth Amendment and the Right To Keep and Bear Arms: The Intent of the Framers, 97th Cong., 2d Sess. 68-82 (Comm. print 1982). [HTML]

  _____, To Keep and Bear Their Private Arms: The Adoption of the Second Amendment, 1787-1791, 10 N. Ky. L. Rev. 13-39 (1982). [HTML]

  _____, The Jurisprudence of the Second and Fourteenth Amendments, 4 GMU L. Rev. 1-69 (1981). [HTML]

  Hardy, David T., The Second Amendment and the Historiography of the Bill of Rights, 4 J. of Law & Pol. 1-62 (1987). [HTML]

  _____, The Firearms Owners' Protection Act: A Historical and Legal Perspective, 17 Cumb. L. Rev. 585-682 (1987). [HTML]

  _____, Armed Citizens, Citizen Armies: Toward a Jurisprudence of the Second Amendment, 9 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol'y 559-638 (1986). [HTML]

  _____, Historical Bases of the Right To Keep and Bear Arms, 97th Cong., 2d Sess. 45-67 (Comm. print 1982). [HTML]

  Heath, J. Norman, Exposing the Second Amendment: Federal Preemption of State Militia Legislation 79 U. Det. Mercy L. Rev.39 (2001). [HTML]  

  Henigan, Dennis A., Arms, Anarchy and the Second Amendment, 26 Val. U. L. Rev. 107 (1991). []

  Johnson, Nicholas J., Administering the Second Amendment: Law, Politics, and Taxonomy, 50 Santa Clara L. Rev. 1263 (2010). []

  _____, Principles and Passions: The Intersection of Abortion and Gun Rights, 50 Rutgers L. Rev. 97-197 (1997). [HTML]

  _____, Beyond the Second Amendment: An Individual Right to Arms Viewed Through the Ninth Amendment, 24 Rutgers L.J. 1-81 (1992). [HTML]

  Kates, Don B. Jr., Gun Control: Separating Reality from Symbolism, 20 J. Contemp. L. 353-379 (1994). [HTML]

  _____, The Second Amendment and the Ideology of Self-Protection, 9 Const. Comm. 87-104 (1992). [HTML]

  _____, Bigotry, Symbolism and Ideology in the Battle over Gun Control, Pub. Interest L. Rev. 31-46 (1992). [HTML]

  _____, The Value of Civilian Handgun Possession as a Deterrent to Crime or a Defense Against Crime, 18 Am. J. of Crim. Law 113-167 (1991). [HTML]

  _____, The Second Amendment: A Dialogue, 49 L. & Contemp. Probs. 143-150 (1986). [HTML]

  _____, Handgun Prohibition and the Original Meaning of the Second Amendment, 82 Mich. L. Rev. 204-273 (1983). [HTML]

  _____, Schaffer, Henry E., Lattimer, John K., Murray, George B., Cassem, Edwin H., Guns and Public Health: Epidemic of Violence or Pandemic of Propaganda?, 62 Tenn. L. Rev. 513-596 (1994). [HTML]

  Kopel, David B., The Second Amendment in the Nineteenth Century, BYU L. REV. 1359 (1998). []

  _____, It Isn't About Duck Hunting: The British Origins of the Right to Arms, 93 Mich. L. Rev. 1335-1362 (1995). [HTML]

  _____, The Ideology of Gun Ownership and Gun Control in the United States, 18 Qtl'y J. of Ideology 3-34 (1995). [HTML]

  _____, Lethal Laws, 15 N.Y. L. Sch. J. of Int. & Comp. L. 355-398 (1995). [HTML]

  _____, Rational Basis Analysis of "Assault Weapon" Prohibition, 20 J. of Contemp. L. 381-417 (1994). [HTML]

  _____, Peril or Protection? The Risks and Benefits of Handgun Prohibition, 12 St. Louis U. Pub. L. Rev. 285-359 (1993). []

  _____, Japanese Gun Control, 12 Asia Pac. L. Rev 26-52 (1993). [HTML]

  _____, Canadian Gun Control: Should the United States Look North for a Solution to its Firearms Problem?, 5 Temple Int'l & Comp. L.J. 1-50 (1991). [HTML]

  _____ & Cramer, Clayton E., State Court Standards of Review for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 50 Santa Clara L. Rev. 1113 (2010). [ ]

  _____ & Cramer, Clayton E. & Hattrup, Scott G., A Tale of Three Cities: The Right to Bear Arms in State Supreme Courts, 68 Temple L. Rev. 1177-1240 (1995). [HTML]

  _____ & Gardiner, Richard E., The Sullivan Principles: Protecting the Second Amendment from Civil Abuse, 56 Seton Hall Legis. J. 737-775 (1995). [HTML]

  _____ & Little, Christopher C., Communitarians, Neorepublicans, and Guns: Assessing the Case for Firearms Prohibition, 56 Maryland L. Rev. 438-554 (1997). [HTML]

  Levin, John, The Right to Bear Arms: The Development of the American Experience, 48 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 148-167 (1971). [HTML]

  Levinson, Sanford, The Embarrassing Second Amendment, 99 Yale L.J. 637-659 (1989). [HTML]

  Lund, Nelson, No Conservative Consensus Yet: Douglas Ginsburg, Brett Kavanaugh, and Diane Sykes on the Second Amendment, 13 Engage: The Journal of the Federalist Society’s Practice Groups No. 2at 30 (Sept. 2012). []

  _____, Two Faces of Judicial Restraint (Or Are There More?) in McDonald v. Chicago, 63 Fla. L. Rev. 487 (2011). []

  _____, The Past and Future of the Individual's Right to Arms, 31 Ga. L. Rev. 1-76 (1996). [HTML]

  _____, The Second Amendment, Political Liberty, and the Right to Self-Preservation, 39 Ala. L. Rev. 103-130 (1987). [HTML]

  Malcolm, Joyce Lee, The Right of the People to Keep and Bear Arms: The Common Law Tradition, 10 Hastings Const. L.Q. 285-314 (1983). [HTML]

  Merkel, William G., Heller as Hubris, and How McDonald v. City of Chicago May Well Change the Constitutional World as We Know It, 50 Santa Clara L. Rev. 1221 (2010). []

  Moncure, Thomas M. Jr., Who is the Militia--The Virginia Ratification Convention and the Right to Bear Arms, 19 Lincoln L. Rev. 1-25 (1990). [HTML]

  Mocsary, George A., Explaining Away the Obvious: The Infeasibility of Characterizing the Second Amendment as a Non-Individual Right, 76 Forham L. Rev. 2113-2175 (2008). [PDF]

  Olson, Joseph E. & Kopel, David B., All the Way Down the Slippery Slope: Gun Prohibition in England and Some Lessons for Civil Liberties in America, 22 Hamline L. Rev. 399-465 (1999). [HTML]

  Polsby, Daniel D. & Kates, Don. B., Jr., Of Holocausts and Gun Control, 75 Wash. U. L.Q. 1237- (1997). []

  Powe, L.A., Guns, Words, and Constitutional Interpretation, 38 Wm & Mary L. Rev. 1311-1403 (1997). [HTML]

  Quinlan, Michael J., Is There a Neutral Justification for Refusing to Implement the Second Amendment or is the Supreme Court Just "Gun Shy"?, 22 Cap. U. L. Rev. 641-692 (1993). [HTML]

  Reynolds, Glenn H., A Critical Guide to the Second Amendment, 62 Tenn. L. Rev. 461-512 (1995). [HTML]

  _____, The Right to Keep and Bear Arms under the Tennessee Constitution: A Case Study in Civic Republican Thought, 61 Tenn. L. Rev. 647-673 (1994). [HTML]

  _____, & Kates, Don B., Jr., The Second Amendment and States' Rights: A Thought Experiment, 36 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 1737-1768 (1995). [HTML]

  Richards, Haydn J., Jr., Redefining the Second Amendment: The Antebellum Right to Keep and Bear Arms and Its Present Legacy , 91 Ky. L.J. 311-351 (2002). [HTML]

  Shalhope, Robert E.,, The Armed Citizen in the Early Republic, 49 L. & Contemp. Probs. 125-141 (1986). [HTML]

  _____, The Ideological Origins of the Second Amendment, 69 J. of Am. Hist. 599-614 (1982). [HTML]

  Shaman, Jeffrey M., After Heller: What Now for the Second Amendment, 50 Santa Clara L. Rev. 1095 (2010). []

  Shelton, Gregory Lee, In Search of the Lost Amendment: Challenging Federal Firearms Regulation Through the State's Right Interpretation of the Second Amendment, 23 Fla. St. U. L. Rev. -- (1995). []

  Sprecher, Robert A., The Lost Amendment, 51 A.B.A. J. 554-557 (June 1965). [HTML]

  _____, The Lost Amendment, 51 A.B.A. J. 665-669 (July 1965). [HTML]

  United States Senate, Report of the Senate Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on the Constitution, 97th Cong., 2d Sess., The Right to Keep and Bear Arms
(See information regarding the relevance of this Senate Report to congressional intent.), Committee Print I-IX, 1-175 (1982). [Menu]  

  U.S. Department of Justice,Whether the Second Amendment Secures an Individual Right, (August 24, 2004). []

  Van Alstyne, William, The Second Amendment and the Personal Right to Arms, 43 Duke L.J. 1236-1255 (1994). [HTML]

  Vandercoy, David E., The History of the Second Amendment, 28 Val. L. Rev. 1007-1039 (1994). [HTML]

  Volokh, Eugene, Nonlethal Self-Defense, (Almost Entirely) Nonlethal Weapons, and the Rights to Keep and Bear Arms and Defend Life, 62 STAN. L. REV. 199 (2009). []

  _____, The Commonplace Second Amendment, 73 NYU L. Rev. 793- (1998). []

  _____, The Amazing Vanishing Second Amendment, 73 NYU L. Rev. 831- (1998). []

  _____, Cottrol, Robert J., Levinson, Sanford, Powe, L.A. Jr., Reynolds, Glenn H., The Second Amendment as Teaching Tool in Constitutional Law Classes, 73 J. of L. Ed. -- (forthcoming 1998). []

  Weatherup, Roy G., Standing Armies And Armed Citizens: An Historical Analysis of The Second Amendment, 2 Hastings Const. L.Q. 961-1001 (1975). [HTML]

  Weiss, Jonathan A., A Reply to Advocates of Gun-Control Law, 52 J. of Urb. Law 557-589 (1974). [HTML]

  Williams, David C., The Unitary Second Amendment, 73 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 822-830 (1998). [HTML]

  _____, The Militia Movement and Second Amendment Revolution: Conjuring with the People, 81 Cornell L. Rev. 879-952 (1996). [HTML]

  _____, Civic Republicanism and the Citizen Militia: The Terrifying Second Amendment, 101 Yale L.J. 551-615 (1991). [HTML]

Home ]